IN-PREP HANDBOOK

Representative of a responder organisation

You are a respresentative of a first responder organisation and want to enhance the collaboration with other organisations?

You might be interested in one of following topics:

Governance
Legal and organisational bases for cross-organisational collaboration
Information sharing
Aspects and procedures
Standard Operating Procedures
Joint development and application
Training and exercises
Cross-organisational activities and technological support
Collaborate
in daily business and supporting technologies: approaches and tools
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This section differentiates two different dimensions of cross-organisational incident response: national collaboration and international collaboration. Different dimensions of interoperability may be assessed making use of an interoperability matrix (continuum).

Cross-organisational collaboration at the national level

Overall, this section focuses on the dimensions describing interoperability of organisations at the national level. The approach builds initially on activities by the U.S. Department of Homeland Affairs. This continuum was adapted in several countries, such as the UK. In the Belgium context, two additional columns were integrated (Testelmans 2017).

Responders Matrix

Governance

Governance Examples – National Level

National examples for legal and organisation bases in cross-organisational collaboration
Republic of Ireland's National Flag
Ireland:

M.E.M. – Framework for Major Emergency Management (2006)

The Framework for Major Emergency Management was developed in 2005 and was adopted by Government decision in 2006. Its purpose is to set out common arrangements and structures for front line public sector emergency management in Ireland.

The document replaces the Framework for Co-ordinated Response to Major Emergency, which has underpinned major emergency preparedness and response capability since 1984. The new Framework was prepared under the aegis of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Major Emergencies, and has been approved by Government decision. The National Steering Group for the implementation of the Framework was established by Government Decision and replaces the Inter-Departmental Committee on Major Emergencies.

One of the key objectives of the Framework is to set out the arrangements and facilities for effective co-ordination

of the individual response efforts of the Principal Response Agencies to  major emergencies, so that the combined result is greater than the sum of the individual efforts. The Framework assigns responsibility for undertaking the co-ordination function clearly and unambiguously and requires it to be supported, so that it happens and is effective.

More Info:

Website

UK flag
UK:

Civil Contingencies Act (2004)

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 provides a single framework for civil protection and seeks to reinforce partnership working at all levels.

It recognises that interrelated systems provide essential services in the UK and as networks have become more complex the range of challenges in maintaining resilience has broadened. Such complexity requires collaborative partnerships working towards common outcomes. Thus the expectation of the Act is that local authorities, the emergency services and the health sector, along with other key service providers, will collaborate and be able to provide normal services in crises, so far as is reasonably practicable.

In the UK, jont doctrine (JESIP) was developed following the Civil Contingencies Act and the Pollock Report.

Based on the Civil Contingencies Act as well as the associated Contingency Planning Regulations 2005 and guidance;  the National Resilience Capabilities Programme (NRCP); and Emergency Response and Recovery ; the UK: Local resilience forums were developed.

There is more information for local resilience forums, including on self-assessment, peer review and improvement, in The role of Local Resilience Forums: a reference document.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=KQksEyGDRQg&feature=emb_logo

The key components of the Joint Doctrine are:
Principles for Joint Working – the principles we expect commanders to follow when planning a joint incident response

M/ETHANE – a common method for passing incident information between services and their control rooms Joint Decision Model (JDM) – A common model used nationally to enable commanders to make effective decisions together.

Local resilience forums (LRFs) are multi-agency partnerships made up of representatives from local public services, including the emergency services, local authorities, the NHS, the Environment Agency and others. These agencies are known as Category 1 Responders, as defined by the Civil Contingencies Act.

More Info:

Website

Website

Netherlands' Flag
Netherlands:

Safety Regions Act (2010)

The Dutch Safety Regions Act has a long history that includes some very tangible events that have led to its adoption, such as the fireworks disaster in Enschede in May 2000

and the New Year’s fire in the ‘De Hemel’ bar in Volendam in 2001. The need for multidisciplinary cooperation involving both the traditional security partners and new partners grew, as citizens are entitled to expect that the public authorities will be able to work together in the event of disasters and crises.

In short, the effectiveness and professionalism of the emergency services in the Netherlands had to be increased. In order to bring this about, uniform service levels had to be established within cooperation areas (security regions) to facilitate mutual assistance and escalation.

The Safety Regions Act seeks to achieve an efficient and high-quality organisation of the fire services,

medical assistance and crisis management under one regional management board. The Act stipulates that as a common rule, safety regions must be structured on the same scale as the police regions. The Safety Regions Act lays the foundations for organising disaster and crisis management with the aim of better protecting citizens against risks.

More Info:

Pdf

Swedish flag
Sweden:

Stockholm Resilience Region

In the initiative the players will develop the ability to collaborate and cooperate through coordinated planning and decisions.

The players involved are the municipalities in Stockholm County (26), County Administration Board of Stockholm, Swedish Armed Forces, Swedish Coastguard, Police Authority in Stockholm Region, SOS Alarm, Ports of Stockholm, Stockholm County Council, Public Transport, Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Södertörn Fire and Rescue Services, Attunda Fire Services, and Swedish Transport Administration. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, MSB, contributes national support and quality assurance of methods and technology from a holistic perspective.

NEED INFO

More Info:

Website

Governance Examples – Multi-National Level

International examples for legal and organisation bases in cross-organisational collaboration
Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)

Civil Protection Network (CPN)

CPN convenes annually at the level of Directors-General. The network’s chairmanship follows the CBSS Presidency rotation.

Purpose: Exchange views on ongoing activities and to coordinate joint measures in the field of civil protection, critical infrastructure protection and other emergency preparedness issues in the Baltic Sea Region. Additionally, the network meets annually at senior expert level and on ad hoc basis in different constellations in order to discuss particular issues or prepare joint projects.

Based on an extensive expert analysis of the situation in the region and consultations among all member states,

the Directors General for Civil Protection in the Baltic Sea Region adopted the Joint Position on Enhancing Cooperation in the Civil Protection Area at their 15th meeting in Iceland on 11 May 2017. It outlines prioritised areas in need of increased cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region to strengthen resilience and preparedness for various types of risks and threats. The positioning also encompasses the development of demand-driven and well-tailored training and education: The Baltic Leadership Programme of 2013-17 should be continued and developed amongst the lines as decided during 14th Meeting of Directors General for the Civil Protection in the Baltic Sea Region in Gdańsk on 8-9 June 2016. Additional training programmes may be developed for specific needs. The Baltic Leadership Programme seeks to create a network of key civil protection actors in the Baltic Sea region and equip them with the tools and information needed to manage cross-border collaboration and projects between diverse organisations in an intercultural context.

More Info:

Website

For the Baltic Leadership Programme:

Website

Euregion Meuse-Rhine Incident control and Crisis management (EMRIC)

EMRIC ia a unique collaboration of public services, that are responsible for public safety, including fire services, technical assistance and emergency medical care in their respective territories.

In a region that is so rich of borders, like the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, emergency services from abroad can often be at the scene of the incident faster than own services. When every second counts, fast assistance is vital.

The collaborating servcies are the fire services of Aachen, the Ordnungsamt from Kreis Heinsberg and the Ordnungsamt from the Städteregion Aachen in Germany, de Province of Limburg and Liège in Belgium and the Veiligheidsregio and GGD Zuid-Limburg in the Netherlands. These are the organisations that fund the collaboration and the so-called EMRIC office. In addition to these seven partners, over 30 services and governments are involved in the EMRIC collaboration. 

EMRIC ensures that cross-border collaboration is possible, however, self-evident it is in the least.

Within these three countries, operational and legal systems differ to such extent, that a lot needs to be arranged, before ambulance or fire trucks are allowed to cross the border. In a region that is so rich of borders, like the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, working, recreating and studying across the border has become self-evident, however, this was not the case for assisting each other in case of emergencies. 

More Info:

Website

GROS

(Grensoverschrijdende Samenwerking / Grenzüberschreitende Zusammenarbeit im Katastrophenschutz)

Involved parties are the Dutch Safety Regions Drenthe, Twente and IJsselland, the Technisches Hillswerk and Landesverband Bremen / Niedersachsen.

Purpose: Provide cross-border incident response and create cooperation agreements focused on information sharing and international assistance.

In the international initiative GROS (agreement for cross-border cooperation)

subjects such as international exercises, response planning, knowledge sharing and international assistance are discussed. Together with the Safety Regions Twente and Drethe, IJsselland cooperates with Germany with regards to the nuclear plant in Lingen. A shared incident response plan exists, the Katastrophenschutz-Sonderplan KKE Kreis Emsland. In the cross-border assistance agreement of the Technisches Hillswerk and Landesverband Bremen / Niedersachsen the daily deployment of Dutch emergency services in Germany and vice versa is arranged.

More Info:

In addition, several networks have been created to different civil protection topics, for example in the context of the FIRE-IN project (https://fire-in.eu/en/) or the DRIVER+ project. The FIRE-IN project developed several fire-related working groups, e.g. on structure fires, wildfires or CBRN aspects. The DRIVER+ Crisis Management Innovation Network Europe (CMINE) encompasses thematic groups among others on wildfires and volunteer management: https://www.cmine.eu/topics

Particularly in the CBRN domain, a range of activities have been implemented over the past years to facilitate multi-national collaboration:

The European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection (ERNCIP) aims at providing a framework within which experimental facilities and laboratories will share knowledge and expertise in order to harmonise test protocols throughout Europe, leading to better protection of critical infrastructures against all types of threats and hazards and to the creation of a single market for security solutions: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/network-bureau/european-reference-network-critical-infrastructure-protection-erncip

  • EU Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence (CoE):

The Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence (CBRN CoE) is an EU initiative. It is led, financed and implemented by the European Commission, in close coordination with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and with the support of the UN (UNICRI) and other International Organisations and local experts. The funding for CoE projects comes from the EU Instrument Contributing to Security and Peace (IcSP).

The CoE is centred around a worldwide network of local experts and collaborating partners. In avoiding a traditional top-down approach, we work in partnership with countries to encourage local ownership of CBRN action plans, policies and project proposals. Based on the EU CBRN CoE prescribed methodology, CBRN CoE NFPs and their CBRN National Teams are responsible for assessing their respective national needs. Following the assessment, National Teams develop their own National Action Plans with the ultimate goal of developing an integrated and effective CBRN policy that is in line with internationally agreed standards. Where gaps are identified the CoE aims to work with the countries to address any possible shortcomings by means of tailored regional projects.

https://cbrn-coe.jrc.ec.europa.eu/user/login?destination=

Information Sharing

Information Sharing Examples – National Level

National examples for legal and organisation bases in cross-organisational collaboration
Netherlands' Flag
Netherlands:

Dutch Nation Wide Crisis Management System (LCMS)

LCMS is a nation-wide crisis management system used in The Netherlands to maintain and share a common operational picture supporting large-scale crisis management collaboration.

LCMS is used by all 25 safety regions, the majority of the waterboards, Rijkswaterstaat, Learn More

an increasing number of emergency health care organisations, the Royal Military Police organisation and some drinking water providers. LCMS supports netcentric collaboration, which is a way of working in which clear agreements are made about sharing information so that decision-making under (crisis) circumstances is always based on an up-to-date, consistent and common operational picture. LCMS is a web based collaboration environment with a very high level of availability. The environment can be used to share information within an organisation as well as between organisations. It supports maintaining and sharing geographical as well as textual pictures.

More Info:

Website

UK flag
UK:

JESIP

Joint Doctrine developed in the UK encompasses – among others – a section on communication.

It builds on the following principles: Learn More

The following supports successful communication between responders and responder agencies:

– Exchanging reliable and accurate information, such as critical information about hazards, risks and threats

– Ensuring the information shared is free from acronyms and other potential sources of confusion

– Understanding the responsibilities and capabilities of each of the responder agencies involved

-Clarifying that information shared, including terminology and symbols, is understood and agreed by all involved in the response

Joint symbols as well as joint terminology is used:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/emergency-responder-interoperability-lexicon

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/168057/Civil_Protection_Common_Map_Symbology_V1-0_March_2012.pdf

Furthermore, all organisations follows the METHAN/principle:

M/ETHANE is now the recognised common model for passing incident information between services and their control rooms.

All services have used similar models for passing information in the past but JESIP has instigated the use of a common model which will mean information can be shared in a consistent way, quickly and easily, whoever the information is passing between.

Please copy or replicate the picture from the website:

https://www.jesip.org.uk/methane

More Info:

Website

Portuguese flag
Portugal:

Integrated System for Relief and Protection Operations (SIOPS)

SIOPS is a set of rules and procedures, which guarantee that civil protection agents act, at the operational level, in a coordinated way and under a unique command.

SIOPS is facilitated by inter-organisational command centres: Learn More

 the National Coordination Centre (CCON) district coordination centres using a joint software for situation assessment.

More Info:

Website

Website

Information Sharing Examples – Multi-National Level

International examples for legal and organisation bases in cross-organisational collaboration
Host Nation Support (HNS) Guidelines

Standards for requesting and receiving international assistance.

Host Nation Support “implies all actions undertaken in the preparedness phase and the disaster response management by a Participating State, Learn More

 receiving or sending assistance, or the Commission, in order to remove as much as possible any foreseeable obstacle to international assistance so as to ensure that disaster response operations proceed smoothly” (European Commission 2012, p. 3).
Derived both from experience and lessons learnt from emergencies, exercises, and trainings, the EU has developed Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG) that intend to assist affected UCPM member states in the organization of the assistance that they receive. Aiming to provide support and guidance, EU HNSG are complementary to existing international documents in the context of disaster management and relief operations, and are of a non-binding nature. They can be applied both in the context of UCPM operations within the EU, as well as in the context of bilateral assistance from an European state to a non-European state. The EC also advocates regard for the HNSG by non-European states requesting and receiving international assistance through the UCPM. [p.3]
The Guidelines lay out advice regarding HNS on the four areas of emergency planning, emergency management and co-ordination on site, logistics/transport, and legal and financial issues. [p.4ff]. The EU HNSG recommend the use of checklists and templates for the Host Nation Support process, as well as coherent use of terminology. To this end, the HNS Guidelines include templates (such as for the request for international assistance, and the offer of international assistance), a HNS checklist, and a glossary of terms in the Annexes. [p.9ff]

More Info:

PDF

UN-OCHA – UNDAC:

United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination Field Handbook

The UNDAC system was originally established in 1993 by United Nations (UN) and the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) to help the United Nations and governments of disaster-affected countries during the first phase of a sudden-onset emergency. UNDAC teams can deploy at short notice (12-48 hours) anywhere in the world and serve as a first point of contact for incoming international relief onsite or at national level.

UNDAC thus supports effective coordination between national disaster management agencies and incoming search and rescue teams (see team classification in INSARAG Guidelines). Learn More

 Specifically in response to earthquakes, UNDAC teams set up and manage the On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC) to help coordinate international Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams. Among the technical services that UNDAC provides, the principal ones are on-site coordination and information dissemination services, under the leadership of the affected country.
The Field Handbook is intended as an easily accessible reference guide for members of an UNDAC team before and during a mission to a disaster or emergency, covering the following topics:
A. The international emergency environment; B. The UNDAC Concept; C. Pre-mission; D. On-mission; E. Mission end; F. Team management; G. Safety and security; H. Information management planning; I. Assessment and analysis (A&A); J. Reporting and analytical outputs; K. Media; L. Coordination; M. OSOCC concept; N. Coordination cells; O. Regional approaches; P. Disaster logistics; Q. ICT and technical equipment; R. Facilities; S. Personal health.

More Info:

Website

Incident Command System (ICS)

Incidents Command Systems play an important role in managing (multi-organisational) incidents efficiently.
One of the most prominent examples is the ICS applied for example in the U.S. and Canada.

The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized on-site management system designed to enable effective, Learn More

 efficient incident management by integrating a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure.
The ICS is used to manage an incident or a non-emergency event, and can be used equally well for both small and large situations.
ICS Canadana for example is a Pan Canadian command and control structure used to help manage emergency incidents and planned events. It provides the framework for standard incident management response and improves interoperability between all response organizations as well as with international cooperators.

More Info:

Website

Standard Operating Procedures

Standard Operating Procedures Examples – National Level

National examples for cross-organisational Standard Operating Procedures
Republic of Ireland's National Flag
Ireland:

M.E.M. Framework, Dedicated Guidance Documents

Guidance Document 10 – A Guide for PRA Local Competent Authorities under S.I No.209 of 2015 European Communities (Control of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2015 

More documents e.g. on Flood Emergencies, Motorway and Dual Carriage Emergencies, etc. can be found here: http://mem.ie/guidance-documents/

Guidance Document 10 is primarily concerned with the obligations and responsibilities of the relevant Principal Response Agencies with regard to External Emergency Planning for ‘Seveso’ Upper Tier Establishments.

It is requested that comments and observations that arise during exercises or real incidents are fed back to the national level.

More Info:

PDF

UK flag
UK:

JESIP Joint Working (Joint Decision Making)

Decision making in incident management follows a general pattern of:

Working out what’s going on (situation),

Establishing what you need to achieve (direction)

Deciding what to do about it (action), all informed by a statement and understanding of overarching values and purpose.

One of the difficulties facing commanders from different responder agencies is how to bring together the available information, reconcile potentially differing priorities and then make effective decisions together.

The Joint Decision Model (JDM), shown below, was developed to resolve this issue.

Responder agencies may use various supporting processes and sources to provide commanders with information, including information on any planned intentions, to commanders. This supports joint decision making.

All joint decisions, and the rationale behind them, should be recorded in a ‘joint decision log’.

When using the joint decision model, the first priority is to gather and assess information and intelligence.

Responders should work together to build shared situational awareness, recognising that this requires continuous effort as the situation, and responders’ understanding, will change over time.

Understanding the risks is vital in establishing shared situational awareness, as it enables responders to answer the three fundamental questions of ‘what, so what and what might?’

Once shared situation awareness is established, the preferred ‘end state’ should be agreed as the central part of a joint working strategy. A working strategy should set out what a team is trying to achieve, and how they are going to achieve it.

More Info:

Website

Standard Operating Procedures Examples – Multi-National Level

International examples for legal and organisation bases in cross-organisational collaboration
Maritime Incident Response Groups (MIRG)

Initiative by the International Maritime Rescue Federation (IMRF) to help with the sharing of knowledge information, initiatives and contacts on this particular topic.

There are two main working groups under this umbrealla: the Baltic and the Adriatic MIRG.

The Baltic Sea MIRG was created as a project by the Finnish Border Guard as the responsible maritime search and rescue authority in cooperation with Finland’s Emergency Rescue Services. The project has sought to create joint MIRG coordination models and operational guidelines for the Baltic Sea region and support the harmonisation of MIRG services in Europe. It developed material on MIRG Services and Training in Europe, European Maritime Traffic Risk Assessment on Ship Fires, Ship Fire Incident Analysis, Operational Guidelines for International MIRG Operations which can be found here: https://www.raja.fi/projects/past/mirg

The North Adriatic Maritime Response Group (NAMIRG) aims at establishing a North Adriatic efficient system of emergency response by the intervention of a trained and specially equipped squad of fire fighters, who can be transported on board of a helicopter to ships on fire at sea: https://www.namirg.eu/

At the European level the MIRGS are bridged by an umbrella which brings together four Maritime Incident Response Groups: http://www.mirg.eu/

More Info:

Website

UN-INSARAG

(International Search and Rescue Advisory Group)

Historically following the earthquakes in Armenia in 1988 and Mexico 1985, specialised international Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams who worked together in the disaster relief operations initiated the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG).

INSARAG is an inter-governmental humanitarian network of disaster managers, government officials, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and practitioners in the field of Urban Search and Rescue operating under the umbrella of the UN. Within the realm of the UN’s mandate, INSARAG contributes to the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR).

USAR assistance is designed to especially respond to emergencies characterised by collapsed structures in urban environments.

USAR teams are equipped to provide emergency medical care to survivors trapped in collapsed structures, and assist in victim search, debris removal, detection of hazardous materials, and stabilization of damaged structures in the context of their search and rescue operations (UNOCHA 2015, p. 17). The INSARAG Guidelines are based on INSARAG members’ best practices and lessons learnt, and aim to ensure “high quality support in the critical life-saving activity of search and rescue in the immediate aftermath of a disaster“ (p.4).

More Info:

Website

ChemSAR:

Operational Plans and Procedures for Maritime Search and Rescue in HNS Incidents

Currently there is a lack of operational plans and standard operational procedures (SOP) for search and rescue (SAR) operations applicable to cases of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) incidents in Baltic Sea Region (BSR) according to rescue authorities and study reports.

The project created operational plans and standard operational procedures (SOP) needed in SAR operations of HNS incidents.

By creating plans and SOPs for the rescue operations related to maritime HNS incidents the project will tackle the above mentioned lack of operational procedures.

By developing the e-learning material for the different international actors in the rescue operations the project will enhance and harmonize the level of knowhow to ensure safe rescue operations. The chemical data bank will act as the basis for information seeking in rescue operations and e-learning.

More Info:

Website

In addition, several networks have been created to different civil protection topics, for example in the context of the FIRE-IN project (https://fire-in.eu/en/) or the DRIVER+ project. The FIRE-IN project developed several fire related working groups, e.g. on structure fires, wild fires or CBRN aspects. The DRIVER+ Crisis Management Innovation Network Europe (CMINE) encompasses thematic groups among others on wildfires and volunteer management: https://www.cmine.eu/topics

Particularly in the CBRN domain, a range of activities have been implemented over the past years to facilitate multi-national collaboration:

The European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection (ERNCIP) aims at providing a framework within which experimental facilities and laboratories will share knowledge and expertise in order to harmonise test protocols throughout Europe, leading to better protection of critical infrastructures against all types of threats and hazards and to the creation of a single market for security solutions: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/network-bureau/european-reference-network-critical-infrastructure-protection-erncip

  • EU Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence (CoE):

The Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence (CBRN CoE) is an EU initiative. It is led, financed and implemented by the European Commission, in close coordination with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and with the support of the UN (UNICRI) and other International Organisations and local experts. The funding for CoE projects comes from the EU Instrument Contributing to Security and Peace (IcSP).

The CoE is centred around a worldwide network of local experts and collaborating partners. In avoiding a traditional top-down approach, we work in partnership with countries to encourage local ownership of CBRN action plans, policies and project proposals.Based on the EU CBRN CoE prescribed methodology, CBRN CoE NFPs and their CBRN National Teams are responsible for assessing their respective national needs.Following the assessment, National Teams develop their own National Action Plans with the ultimate goal of developing an integrated and effective CBRN policy that is in line with internationally agreed standards. Where gaps are identified the CoE aims to work with the countries to address any possible shortcomings by means of tailored regional projects.

https://cbrn-coe.jrc.ec.europa.eu/user/login?destination=

Training and Exercises

Training and Exercises Examples – National Level

Examples for cross-organisational training and exercises at the national level
Republic of Ireland's National Flag
IRELAND – M.E.M.

Framework for Major Emergency Management

A Guide to Planning and Staging Exercises

The Framework for Major Emergency Management was developed in 2005 and was adopted by Government decision in 2006. Its purpose is to set out common arrangements and structures for front line public sector emergency management in Ireland.

The document provides guidance in planning and implementing multi-agency exercises

More Info:

Website

UK flag
UK – JESIP Framework

Testing and Exercising  Assurance Framework

The findings from a number of reviews of major national emergencies and disasters made clear that the emergency services carry out their individual roles efficiently and professionally.
However, there were some common themes relating to joint working where improvement was needed – JESIP was established to address these issues:Learn More

  • Challenges with initial command, control and coordination activities on arrival at scene
  • A requirement for common joint operational and command procedures
  • Role of others, especially specialist resources and the reasons for their deployment, not well understood between services
  • Challenges in the identification of those in charge at the scene leading to delays in planning response activity
  • Misunderstandings when sharing incident information and differing risk thresholds not understood

This framework is based on the model used by JESIP for the validation exercises run as part of the initial programme. This template should help exercise planners achieve cost-effective exercising of multiple groups of commanders in a live-play environment in a single day.

More Info:

Website

Training and Exercises Examples – Multi-National Level

Examples for cross-organisational training and exercises at the international level
EU Civil Protection Mechanism Training Programme

The EU Civil Protection Mechanism runs an active and comprehensive training programme,Learn More


offering experts from all over Europe a deeper knowledge of the requirements of European civil protection missions. The training helps experts improve their coordination and assessment skills in disaster response.

A training programme has been set up for civil protection and emergency management personnel to enhance prevention,

 preparedness and disaster response by ensuring compatibility and complementarity between the intervention teams and other intervention support as well as by improving the competence of the experts involved. Since 2004 over 8 000 training course places have been offered to Participating States, EU staff, partner organisations and third countries.
The basis of all training courses is a comprehensive online learning package that gives experts the opportunity to prepare prior to course participation and to refresh their knowledge.

The training courses under the Union Civil Protection Mechanism are meant as a supplement to the national training (expert training and the needed basic training for international deployments) provided to the experts by their home country or organisation. The different courses are described in the brochure available via the indicated link.

More Info:

Website

eNOTICE

The scope of the H2020 SEC-21–GM-2016-2017 eNOTICE project – European Network of CBRN Training Centers – is to build a dynamic,Learn More

functional and sustainable pan European network of CBRN Training Centres, testing and demonstration sites (CBRN TC), aiming at enhanced capacity building in training and users-driven innovation and research, based on well-identified needs.

eNOTICE offers to map and label EU CBRN Training Centers, based on their capabilities and specificities; Learn More

 to use a dedicated web based information and communication platform for exchange of effective practices, lessons learned and dissemination; to pool and share resources. invite current R&D projects to tests and demos at eNOTICE training centres at our Joint Activities. 09/2017- 08/2022

More Info:

Website

Collaboration

Collaboration in Daily Business Examples – National Level

Examples for collaboration in daily business at the national level
UK flag
UK:

JESIP

In the UK, jont doctrine (JESIP) was developed following the Civil Contingencies Act and the Pollock Report

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 provides a single framework for civil protection and seeks to reinforce partnership working at all levels. It recognises that interrelated systems provide essential services in the UK and as networks have become more complex the range of challenges in maintaining resilience has broadened. Such complexity requires collaborative partnerships working towards common outcomes. Thus the expectation of the Act is that local authorities, the emergency services and the health sector, along with other key service providers, will collaborate and be able to provide normal services in crises, so far as is reasonably practicable.

The key components of the Joint Doctrine are:

Principles for Joint Working – the principles we expect commanders to follow when planning a joint incident response

M/ETHANE – a common method for passing incident information between services and their control rooms

Joint Decision Model (JDM) – A common model used nationally to enable commanders to make effective decisions together

More Info:

Website

UK flag
UK:

Local resilience forums were developed

There is more information for local resilience forums, including on self-assessment, peer review and improvement, in The role of Local Resilience Forums: a reference document.

Local resilience forums (LRFs) are multi-agency partnerships made up of

representatives from local public services, including the emergency services, local authorities, the NHS, the Environment Agency and others. These agencies are known as Category 1 Responders, as defined by the Civil Contingencies Act.

More Info:

Website

Resilience Direct Online Network

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 requires that emergency responders co operate and share information

in order to efficiently and effectively prepare for, and respond to, emergencies and ensure that action is coordinated. ResilienceDirect helps organisations to fulfil these duties by supporting the adoption of common working practices, and ensuring that key information is readily and consistently available to users.

ResilienceDirect is an online private ‘network’ which enables civil protection practitioners to work together – across geographical and organisational boundaries – during the preparation, response and recovery phases of an event or emergency.

More Info:

Website

Netherlands' Flag
Netherlands:

Dutch Nation Wide Crisis Management System (LCMS)

LCMS is a nation-wide crisis management system used in The Netherlands to maintain and share a common operational picture supporting large-scale crisis management collaboration.

LCMS is used by all 25 safety regions, the majority of the waterboards, Rijkswaterstaat, an increasing number of emergency health care organisations, the Royal Military Police organisation and some drinking water providers.

LCMS supports netcentric collaboration, which is a way of working in which clear agreements are made about sharing information so that decision-making under (crisis) circumstances is always based on an up-to-date, consistent and common operational picture. LCMS is a web based collaboration environment with a very high level of availability. The environment can be used to share information within an organisation as well as between organisations. It supports maintaining and sharing geographical as well as textual pictures. 

More Info:

Website

SAMIJ:

Samenwerkingsregeling Incidentbestrijding IJsselmeergebied

The SAMIJ agreement was signed in 2010 by all involved parties. The platform created a shared incident response plan for the Lake IJssel in 2011.

The network is formally led by a governmental board, and managed by an operational working group. The working group organizes yearly multidisciplinary exercises, updates the incident response plan and corresponding scenarios. They also organize thematic meetings and are responsible for creating a long-term vision for future developments. All partners contribute financially to the network.

Samenwerkingsregeling Incidentbestrijding IJsselmeergebied (SAMIJ) is a network organisation,

involved parties are 9 Safety Regions, 6 Regional Water Boards, the Coast Guard, National Police, the Rescue Guard and The Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management. All parties have an individual responsibility within incident response on the Lake IJssel. The goal is to form cooperation agreements between these parties in order to improve incident response on the Lake IJssel.

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Collaboration in Daily Business Examples – Multi-National Level

International examples for collaboration in daily business
Euregion Meuse-Rhine Incident control and Crisis management (EMRIC)

EMRIC ia a unique collaboration of public services, that are responsible for public safety, including fire services, technical assistance and emergency medical care in their respective territories.

In a region that is so rich of borders, like the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, emergency services from abroad can often be at the scene of the incident faster than own services. When every second counts, fast assistance is vital.

The collaborating servcies are the fire services of Aachen, the Ordnungsamt from Kreis Heinsberg and the Ordnungsamt from the Städteregion Aachen in Germany, de Province of Limburg and Liège in Belgium and the Veiligheidsregio and GGD Zuid-Limburg in the Netherlands. These are the organisations that fund the collaboration and the so-called EMRIC office. In addition to these seven partners, over 30 services and governments are involved in the EMRIC collaboration.

EMRIC ensures that cross-border collaboration is possible, however, self-evident it is in the least.

Within these three countries, operational and legal systems differ to such extent, that a lot needs to be arranged, before ambulance or fire trucks are allowed to cross the border. In a region that is so rich of borders, like the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, working, recreating and studying across the border has become self-evident, however, this was not the case for assisting each other in case of emergencies. 

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ChemSAR:

Operational Plans and Procedures for Maritime Search and Rescue in HNS Incidents

Currently there is a lack of operational plans and standard operational procedures (SOP) for search and rescue (SAR) operations applicable to cases of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) incidents in Baltic Sea Region (BSR) according to rescue authorities and study reports.

The project created operational plans and standard operational procedures (SOP) needed in SAR operations of HNS incidents.

By creating plans and SOPs for the rescue operations related to maritime HNS incidents the project will tackle the above mentioned lack of operational procedures.

By developing the e-learning material for the different international actors in the rescue operations the project will enhance and harmonize the level of knowhow to ensure safe rescue operations. The chemical data bank will act as the basis for information seeking in rescue operations and e-learning.

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